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Mumbai's Rough-Hewn Legacy April 4, 2007
text and photographs by Samir S. Patel

Ancient caves are part of the fabric of life in a megacity's suburban slums.


The smaller figures of devotees that surround the Lakulisa's empty niche may have been vandalized, but they also show signs of the natural wear that has damaged much of the cave's remaining sculptures. Like Jogeshwari, Mandapeshwar has problems with water seepage, which has eroded many of the cave's details and flourishes. The red sindhoor powder on the figures show that the cave is actively used for Hindu worship.  Next >>

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Samir S. Patel is an associate editor at ARCHAEOLOGY.

© 2007 by the Archaeological Institute of America