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Further Reading Volume 56 Number 5, September/October 2003

Cloak and Trowel (page 30)

Paul Sullivan's 1989 Unfinished Conversations (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989) and Harris & Sadler's The Archaeologist Was A Spy (University of New Mexico Press, 2003) document the WWI intelligence efforts of Morley and other archaeologists. The opening scene comes from Harris & Sadler, pp. 96-97. Brian Fagan's Return to Babylon (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979) summarizes the intelligence contributions of Lawrence, Woolley, and Bell. A number of sources examine the impact of Boas' letter to The Nation (December 19, 1919), among these are George Stocking's "The Scientific Reaction Against Cultural Anthropology, 1917-1920," pp. 270-307 in Stocking's Race, Culture, and Evolution (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1968), and my "The Shameful Business" (HAN XXVIII:2 [2002], pp. 9-12) records Spier's first-person recollection of Boas' censure. An account of the suspicions of Kidder and Guthe is found in Raymond Thompson's article "Archaeological Innocence at Pecos in 1917-1918," The Kiva 68:2 (2002), pp. 123-127.

Robin Winks examines the historical links between WWII and Cold War intelligence agencies and academics in Cloak and Gown (NY: Morrow, 1987). For more on anthropological contributions to WWII, see my articles "Gregory Bateson and the OSS" Human Organization 57:4 (1988), pp. 379-384 and "Lessons From Second World War Anthropology" Anthropology Today 18:3 (2002), pp. 14-20. For an analysis of Lothrop's WWII espionage vis-a-vis Boas' complaint, see my "Anthropologists as Spies" The Nation (271:16, pp. 24-27, November 20, 2000). Lothrop's FBI file is 67-384224-4, (Hoover to Astor 11/2/40); Clothier's FBI file is WFO 67-HQ-227981. William Clothier's reportedly ghostwritten article is "Recuay Pottery in the Lower Santa Valley," Revista del Museo Nacional 12:2 (1943), pp. 235-238)

Jon Weiner's observations on Langer's use of archaeologists and other social scientists are from The Nation (September 5, 1987, pp. 204-206. Douglas Preston's profile of Frank Hibben, "The Mystery of Sandia Cave" (New Yorker, June 12, 1995, pp. 66-83) gives an account of Hibben's claimed Mongolian adventures. For Hibben's FBI file, see FBI records: AQ-116-20057 and WFO 116-105562. Laura Nader's brilliant essay "The Phantom Factor," pp. 107-146 in The Cold War and the University (NY: New Press, 1997) shows how anthropology's four fields were changed by the political needs of the Cold War. For more on anthropologist's witting and unwitting links with the CIA, see my "Interlopers and Invited Guests," Anthropology Today 18:6 (2002), pp. 16-21; for more details on Frederick Johnson's role in establishing covert connections between the AAA and CIA see my, "Anthropology Sub Rosa," pp. 29-49 in C. Fluehr-Lobban, ed., Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology (Walnut Creek: AltaMira, 2003). Wilbur Eveland's comments on spies' wives posing as archaeologists appeared in his book, Ropes of Sand (New York: Norton, 1980; p. 46). Payson Sheets' accounts of archaeologist-spies are found in "The CIA" Anthropology News 42:1 (2001), p. 2001. Brooks Duncan's essay "Anthropological Perils" on the consequences for anthropologists not cooperating with overtures from intelligence agencies appeared in Political and Legal Anthropological Review 18:2 (1995), pp. 7-15.

For a sense of the tensions surrounding the public discussion of the topic of archaeologists' links to espionage see the heated exchange between E.I. Baffi et al. and Anna Roosevelt (E.I. Baffi et al., "Letter to SAA Bulletin" SAA Bulletin 14:1 [1996], pp. 4-5, and A. Roosevelt, "Reply to Bafffi et al." SAA Bulletin 14:1 [1996], p. 5). Nancy Howell discusses the dangers faced by archaeologists falsely accused of being spies in Surviving Fieldwork (Washington, D.C.: Special AAA Pub. 26, 1990). Geologist and paleoanthropologist Jon Kalb's outstanding memoir Adventures in the Bone Trade (NY: Copernicus Books, 2000), gives a first-hand account of being accused of espionage in the field. Fred Wendorf's review (American Journal of Physical Anthropology 92 [1993], pp. 401-409) of Robert Bell's book Impure Science (NY: John Willey, 1992) contains one of the best accounts of the damage caused by accusations that Kalb was a CIA agent. Wendorf writes that he found these accusations to be "ludicrous," because, "no CIA agent would go out into the hellhole of the Middle Awash for months on end, traveling in a beaten-up Land Rover sleeping on the ground, with no one to talk to but a couple of graduate students and an Afar guide. What would he have reported? That the water tasted like hippo urine? (This would have been accurate)."

Solstice at the Stones (page 36)

For an excellent overview of modern paganism, see Robert J. Wallis' Shamans/Neo-Shamans (New York: Routledge, 2003). Wallis and his colleague Jenny Blain have studied pagan involvement at archaeological sites in great detail. Some results of their Sacred Sites Project are available at Historian Ronald Hutton's books The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft (Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks, 2001) and The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy (London: Blackwell, 1993), are important to understanding the modern pagan movement.

For general information and news on Britain's megalithic sites, try the Megalithic Portal web site, English Heritage also maintains an extensive web site:

There's no shortage of pagans on the Internet. Among the major groups with a significant presence in cyberspace are: The Pagan Federation,, The Loyal Arthurian Warband,, and the British Druid Order Of particular interest is Cerridwen "Dragon Oak" Connelly's TechnoPagan web site:

Pagan involvement has been key to preservation of the Rollright Stones, an important British megalithic site:

Extreme Sport (page 42)

Visit to see the most recent photographs and reports from the ulama research team from California State University, Los Angeles. The Sport of Life and Death: The Mesoamerican Ballgame (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2001), the catalog for the Mint Museum of Art's recent exhibition about the ballgame, is a comprehensive and densely illustrated volume covering recent scholarship about the game, past and present. Launched in association with the exhibition, is a fun and informative interactive website, where visitors can dress a ball player, play the ballgame, and read overviews of Mesoamerican culture and the game's history.

Spirited Explorer (page 50)

See Jo Anne Van Tilburg's Among Stone Giants: The Life of Katherine Routledge and Her Remarkable Expedition to Easter Island (New York: Scribner's, 2003) and Katharine Routledge's own book, The Mystery of Easter Island (first published in 1919, but now available in a paperback reprint from Adventures Unlimited Press, 1997).

© 2003 by the Archaeological Institute of America