A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America
The Russian American Company shipwreck of the Kad'yak
would still be sitting untouched 80 feet below the surface of Alaskan
waters were it not for the perseverance of one astute marine
biologist. Bradley Stevens, a scientist at the NOAA Fisheries'
Kodiak, Alaska, Laboratory, ventured out of his usual realm of marine
animal research to locate Kad'yak, which sank in 1860.
Without his work the wreck
migh have been an unlikely pursuit by excavators, but Stevens managed
to both locate the wreck and arrange its excavation by trained
archaeologists. ARCHAEOLOGY spoke to Stevens about
Bradley Stevens, who helped bring about
Kad'yak's discovery, holds a spider crab (NOAA)
How did you become interested in the Kad'yak shipwreck?
Mike Yarborough, who is an archaeologist in Anchorage, has
unearthed some of the original documentation. And I'm not sure how
he did that, but he came across--he was intentionally looking for
and he found--the logs written by Captain Archimandritof when he
surveyed the coast of Spruce Island in July of 1860. And he had
those logs translated from Russian by a professor at the
University of Alaska. The logs, by the way, are on microfilm in the
National Archives. They were apparently part of the property of the
Russian American Company. It was transferred to the United States
when we purchased Alaska in 1867.
Well, Mike Yarborough had the information, and he must have had it
for a couple years. At some point we crossed paths, probably in
about 1991, and he knew that I was doing some underwater research in
Kodiak, and he thought I might be able to search for the
Kad'yak. I'm a marine biologist; I'm not an archaeologist or
historian, but I've been doing a lot of work with fairly deep-water
research using submersibles--two person and three person submarines,
that is--remotely operated vehicles, scuba, and other types of
underwater equipment. I felt I had the tools and the skills to
go look for the ship, and since it was in my own backyard, I just
thought that it would be a good match for my interests. I also felt
it was important that the ship be found by someone like myself
who was a scientist rather than being found by treasure hunters and
at one point we did have to deal with that issue. I'm a scientist,
and my interest is really the history and science behind doing the
search and doing the archaeology. And it's great fun too, to dive on
it and to see the stuff, but I'm not interested in commercial
exploitation of the site, and really I'm interested in preventing
that to some degree. So I felt it was important to do it before it
was done by someone else.
Can you describe what the past 12 years of searching for
Kad'yak have involved?
Well, the first about six years that I had the information we
didn't actually do any searching, although we did go over there in
1992 with a two-person submarine, and we dropped it down in the outer
part of the bay and looked around. But due to the maze-like nature
of the reefs and pinnacles over there, we couldn't penetrate into the
bay very far with the submersible. We did see that it was a gravel
bottom and the visibility was pretty clear, so that suggested that it
would be a good place to look. I didn't get around to really
searching for it until probably, let's say, 1998. I started writing grant
proposals because I knew that it would take some money to get over there
and mount a proper search. We'd need a magnetometer, we'd need some
side-scan sonar, we'd need a vessel. We'd probably need a minimum of a week,
preferably two weeks, to search well for it. So I started writing grant
proposals and sending them around, and they were met with sort of a lukewarm
response, I think primarily because of the fact that I was not an
and the site was not known.
We didn't know exactly where it was, and we didn't know whether
we'd find it, so it was a gamble. And I thought about the
possibility of just getting some volunteers together and going over
there and looking, but I really shied away from that because I didn't
want anybody pointing fingers at me as being a recreational salvage
diver, so I wanted to make sure it was done in a very transparent
operation with some community backing. Eventually I hooked up with
Dave McMahan, who is the state archaeologist for Alaska, and he knew
Tim Runyan and Frank Cantelas at East Carolina University and put me
in touch with them. And together we rewrote my proposals and
submitted them to the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration in 2003. We
did not, however, get funding in that year, but we built up such a
momentum that I didn't want to let it die.
I did finally put together a team of volunteers and go out and
look for the ship and we found the wreckage in July of 2003. And
that almost proved to be my undoing because two of the people that
were involved in that operation were interested in recreational
salvage and commercial use of the site, and there were a few months
of intense, shall I say, concern over the removal of some artifacts.
But that was finally straightened out, and I think that it's not an
issue anymore. I'd like to believe that (laughs).
Did you have any doubts that the ship that you and your
volunteer team found actually was Kad'yak?
Well, from a scientific point of view, I have to say that we
didn't have any proof that it was the ship that we were looking for
initially. But there were no other historical records of shipwrecks
in that area. And the fact that we found a cannon on the ship and an
old style anchor pointed to a mid-nineteenth century sailing vessel.
So I would say I was fairly certain that we had found what we were
looking for. But that certainty became very certain this year when
we pulled up an artifact that had the name of the ship on it.
So how did you feel when those archaeologists were able to
verify it for real when they did find that artifact?
Oh, I was flabbergasted, because we'd seen this artifact early in
the dives this year when we were initially scanning the site, and the
nameplate wasn't visible the first time we saw it. But we sort of
wroteit down as--okay, here's an interesting item, let's come back
and look at it once we lay out our grid and have all the major
artifacts sort of scouted out. And Frank Cantelas did go back and
turn it over a few days later and saw the writing--but he didn't
tell anybody (laughs) until late in the day after dinner. We were
all sort of sitting around, drinking a glass of wine and eating, and
he said, "Oh, by the way--the artifact has the name of the ship on
it!" My jaw about hit the table. I was just surprised that it was
there and that he'd wait so long to tell us.
I know you work as a biologist, not an archaeologist.
Ordinarily, what sort
of work do you do? What does it involve?
Well, I work primarily on crabs, and I specialize in deep-water crab species
such as king crabs and Tanner crabs, and I do a variety of things, which mostly
related to the archaeology work is that I deal with--I use tools such as
submarines and remotely operated vehicles and sonar. And as a matter of fact,
right now I'm writing a proposal to develop some scanning sonar systems for
monitoring crab populations. So I have a lot of experience in doing underwater
searches with video cameras on a string, so to speak. And that's what led me
to be interested in finding this wreck. I figured if I can find a couple of
crabs on the bottom of the ocean in hundreds of meters of water, I could find a
shipwreck, right, using the same tools?
Makes sense, yes.
It makes sense. And I just thought I had the drive and the skills to do it.
And the other thing I do is a little laboratory work on reproduction
of crabs and especially the larval biology. So we have crabs in the laboratory
that are hatching eggs. We call them developing larvae, and we're doing
experiments with them. That's a very intensive sort of hands-on, in the
laboratory type of work. And it related to deep-water work because we're
trying to look at how environment and habitat affect their behavior in terms of
reproductive timing and hatching.
So do you have any plans to become a trained archaeologist?
(Laughs) I don't have any plans to change my career. I've learned a lot
working with the archaeologists from ECU, but I would say--you know, it's all
science, and it all follows sort of a very similar process. You go down and
you make observations and you make measurements, and whether I'm counting crabs
per unit area on the seafloor or measuring artifacts and distances from a
transect line, it's all pretty much the same kind of work. You're asking
slightly different questions and you're trying to achieve slightly different
goals, but the methods and the ideas are pretty similar. And I think a marine
biologist can adapt to that pretty easily. Likewise, I think an archaeologist
can adapt to marine biology pretty easily. It's just a matter of what
questions you're asking.
Do you have any projects in the works that involve finding
Not really. I'm really interested in pursuing the completion of
project. I'd like to see the site examined in a little more detail. I mean,
we did a lot of work this year. We recorded everything we could find on the
surface, but we also found that there were areas we hadn't searched well that
had some things in them. I'd like to see us go through some of the sediments
down there and look for small artifacts, and I'd like to see some artifacts
recovered and preserved for display. And that's about my interest--you know, I
don't plan on becoming a shipwreck hunter. It was sort of an
an accident, I mean, we did it on purpose, but it just happened to fall into my
area--my geographic area of interest as well as my professional area
I like diving, and I'm going to continue that for many years. My
daughter is a new
diver, and I want to do some of that with her--but I don'texpect to become a
(laughs)--I don't expect to have a career finding
Do you think excavations will continue on Kad'yak in the coming
Yes, I do. This year our funding was almost entirely federal, and
it was a really good start and it generated a lot of interest, and I
think that we can translate that now into some state and local
funding for the completion of this project. At least that's what I'd
like to see happen.
Is there anything else about Kad'yak that sticks out in
Well, do you know the story behind the sinking?
The ship sank near the chapel of Saint Herman because Captain
didn't pay homage to the saint?
Yes. That's really the interesting part, and that's really what
got me hooked on finding the shipwreck--is the story is fascinating.
I'm not associated with the Russian Orthodox Church, but I just find
the story fascinating because it's such an interesting link with both
the church and with local history. And being able to convert that
story to reality by finding the physical, you know, evidence that it
actually occurred the way it was supposed to have happened is really
a thrill. Honestly, at times I read those accounts and it almost
read like mythology, because they were kind of vague and different
versions were slightly different, and even having the skipper's logs
in my hand they were very difficult to interpret, and a minor error
could lead you totally astray. I began to wonder if there was a real
truth, a real ship out there to find. So finding it is a thrill to
verify all that stuff. And there it is, right there where it was
supposed to be.
Right, so you literally went back from the documents and worked
your way to finding the ship.
And here's another interesting thing, is that the bearings that
the skipper took were sort of vague. And he only took one bearing to
the mast, which was just a compass line. Finding where he took that
from was the hard part, and when I finally concluded that--okay, he
was standing at this point on the map, and he took this bearing; the
ship is on this bearing somewhere, but I don't know how far along the
line it is, it's just a line that goes out across the water--I took
an educated guess and drew a point on that line and said, "This is
where we're going to start searching." Well, it turns out our
initial contacts with the wreckage were about 100 meters from that
point, and where we finally found parts of the rudder were about 150
feet from that point. So it was a pretty good guess.