Volume 56 Number 2, March/April 2003
Mystery Mummy (page 18)
On mummies in general, see: B. Brier, Egyptian Mummies: Unraveling the Secrets of an Ancient Art (New York: William Morrow, 1994) and S. Ikram and A. Dodson, The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1998).
For the lives and chronology of the pharaoh's see A. Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, rev. ed., 2000).
The antiquities trade in Luxor during the mid-nineteenth century was noted by many travel writers and expatriates, see, for example, L. Duff Gordon, Letters from Egypt (London: Virago, 1983), C.D. Warner, Mummies and Moslems (Hartford: American Publishing Co.,1876), and A. Edwards, A Thousand Miles up the Nile (London: Routledge, 1877).
Accounts dealing more directly with the royal mummies cache are J. Capart, ed., Travels in Egypt (December 1880 to May 1891). Letters of Charles Edwin Wilbour (Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum, 1936), A. Edwards, "Lying in State in Cairo," Harper's New Monthly Magazine 65 (July 1882), pp. 185-204, and E.L. Wilson, "Finding Pharaoh" The Century Magazine 34:1 (May 1887), pp. 3-10. See also D. Bickerstaffe, "The Mummy in the Nile," KMT 13:2 (2002), pp. 74-79, for the fate of one mummy sometimes thought to be from the cache. The story of the royal mummies cache and analysis of the finds is presented in N. Reeves and R. Wilkinson, The Complete Valley of the Kings: Tombs and Treasures of Egypt's Greatest Pharaohs (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1996) and N. Reeves, Ancient Egypt, The Great Discoveries: A Year by Year Chronicle (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000), the second volume including descriptions of many other finds made at the same period the Atlanta mummy was purchased.
For an extended description and discussion of the royal mummies cache, see D. Forbes, Tombs, Treasures, Mummies (Sebastopol, California: KMT Communications, 1998), chapter one "The Royal Mummies Cache" (pp. 17-57), and appendix two "Catalogue of the Mummies from DB320" (pp. 597-669).
A good brief introduction to the royal mummies is A. Dodson and S. Ikram, Royal Mummies in the Egyptian Museum (Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1997). If you want more, there is a reprint of an early examination of them, G. Elliot Smith's The Royal Mummies (London: Duckworth, 2000), and J.E. Harris and E.F. Wente's An X-Ray Atlas of the Royal Mummies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980) (but note that their conclusions regarding the identifications of some of the royal mummies are debated).
For the Niagara Falls Museum and its Egyptian collection, see P. Lacovara, et al., "New Life for the Dead," ARCHAEOLOGY 54:5 (September/October 2001), pp. 22-27. More on the history of the Niagara Falls Museum can be found at www.niagaramuseum.com. For an archive of press coverage on the Niagara Falls mummies, see www.egyptianmuseum.com, but note that the identification of the royal mummy in Atlanta as Rameses I is far from certain. On the Niagara Falls collection in its new home at Emory University's Michael C. Carlos Museum, see www.carlos.emory.edu/COLLECTION/EGYPT.
Also on the web is a report "Mumie NFM 5 - ein aegyptischer Pharao?" by anthropologist W.M. Pahl of the University of Tubingen who examined the mummy in 1985. Although the text is in German, the numerous photographs and x-ray images speak for themselves.
Results of a recent German-Russian re-investgation of royal mummies cache tomb are available in a report by E. Graefe, "The Royal Cache and the Tomb Robberies."
What Can We Learn from a Maya Vase? (page 26)
For a detailed analysis of Classic Maya painted ceramics discussing the artistic tradition, functions of the pottery, iconographic and hieroglyphic decipherments, and painting styles and chemical composition, see Painting the Maya Universe: Royal Ceramics of the Classic Period (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 1994), by D. Reents-Budet, J. Ball, R. Bishop, V. Fields, and B. MacLeod. D. Reents-Budet's "Feasting Among the Classic Maya: Evidence from Pictorial Ceramics," in The Maya Vase Book VI (2000), edited by J. Kerr, presents a discussion of feasting as a political, social and economic mechanism among the Classic Maya elite based on evidence from the site of Altun Ha, Belize. For reconstructions of the dynastic histories of major Maya sites, see S. Martin and N. Grube's Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens (New York: Thames & Hudson, 2000). M. Coe and J. Kerr's Art of the Maya Scribe (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1998) is a beautifully illustrated exposition of ancient Maya scribal arts and artists.
The website of The Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies--www.FAMSI.org--has among its many resources the Kerr Photographic Archive of Maya ceramics, the Bernal Annotated Bibliography on Mesoamerica, Maya hieroglyphic decipherment tools, research reports from FAMSI research grant recipients on a variety of Mesoamerican topics, and the Linda Schele archive of drawings of Maya monuments and hieroglyphic texts. Also recommended, is www.mesoweb.com, a website presenting new findings in Maya history and Mesoamerican archaeology, high quality photographs of artifacts from Mexico's National Anthropology Museum, decipherments of Maya hieroglyphic texts, Merle Greene Robertson's rubbings of Maya monuments, and news from The Precolumbian Art Research Institute of San Francisco.
Searching for the First New Zealanders (page 40)
James Belich's Making Peoples: A History of New Zealanders (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1996) has a thorough introduction to the archaeology of the archipelago. Archaeologist Nigel Prickett's copiously illustrated Landscapes of Conflict: A Field Guide to the New Zealand Wars (Auckland: Random House New Zealand, 2002) is the best account of the New Zealand Wars, the nineteenth-century conflicts between Europeans and Maori which have left a significant archaeological signature on the New Zealand landscape. For more on the archaeology of New Zealand, go to the New Zealand Archaeological Association's web site www.nzarchaeology.org. The New Zealand Archaeological Association also has an excellent guide for
tourists interested in archaeological sites.
When Spells Worked Magic (page 48)
See C. Farone, Ancient Greek Love Magic (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999); C. Farone and D. Obbink, eds., Magika Hiera: Ancient Greek Magic and Religion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991);
J. Gager, Curse tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992); F. Graf, Magic in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997); G. Luck, Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman World (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985) and Ancient Pathways and Hidden Pursuits: Religion, Morals, and Magic in the Ancient World (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); and M. Meyer and R. Smith, eds., Ancient Christian Magic: Coptic Texts of Ritual Power (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999). See also the translation of Apuleius' Metamorphoses.
© 2003 by the Archaeological Institute of America